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Translations of articles in the English language
is in automatic mode, the original version
of the article in Russian - here

Description of physical exercises exercise therapy

Feature of exercise: Physical exercise (medical gymnastics) are the primary means of exercise therapy. Therapeutic use of exercise, outdoor and sports games, applied sport and exercise, passive, reflexive and corrective movement, exercise on special equipment and devices (simulators), ideomotor exercises, etc.

The systematic application of physical exercises can influence the reactivity of the organism, to change as General reaction of the patient, and its local manifestation. Thus in General the reaction of the body usually involved and the physiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenetic process. The choice of exercises is based on the mechanism of their action, taking into account the characteristics of the disease, patient's age, etc. (see scheme 1).


Scheme 1. Exercises when training static-dynamic functions in patients

  • Training static-dynamic functions
    • Orientation of the patient in different positions
    • Training static and dynamic stability
      • Simple (elementary) exercises
      • Compound exercises
      • Exercise at the gym and in the pool (tub)
      • Exercise in balance (on the floor, the bench, sports equipment, etc.)
    • Dynamic exercises (movements)
      • Crawling, climbing, etc.
      • Simulation exercises
      • Walking in corsets, splints, prostheses, etc.
      • Movement using wheelchairs, canes, crutches, etc.
      • Stair climbing, climbing on a bench, etc.
      • Exercises with objects (dumbbells, balls, sticks, etc.)
      • Games, outdoor games, gymnastics U-SHU, asanas, etc.

The effectiveness of physical exercise depends on the nature of the movements, number of repetitions and involvement in a dynamic process of a group of muscles (various movements in small, medium and large joints of the limbs, breathing exercises — diaphragmatic, thoracic, etc.).

With the use of therapeutic exercises (LH) physical exercises have a direct impact on both the nervous and humoral mechanisms, aligning functional activities.

One characteristic of LFC is its dosing (see scheme 2).


Scheme 2.

  • Dosing exercise
    • The choice of a starting position (sitting, standing, lying down, on all fours, on his side, etc.)
    • The number of repetitions
    • According to the activity of implementation (active, passive, active-passive)
    • Tempo run (slow, fast, medium)
    • The amplitude of movements (large, medium, small)
    • Complexity of implementation (simple, complex)
    • By the presence of the emotional factor (music, relay races, etc.)
    • The number of breathing exercises in one lesson
    • On the use of objects, shells, simulators, shock absorbers etc. and exercise on the resistance in the water, etc.
    • For use the special sliding planes, roller trolleys, hangers, rubber belts, cuffs for lower extremities (hydrokinetic)

In physical therapy there training General and special.


Types of training

General training contributes to the improvement and strengthening of the body of the patient, when using it use all kinds of General developmental exercise.

Special training is aimed at the reconstruction (development) of disturbed functions as a result of injury or disease, in this case, use the types of exercises that have a direct impact on the injured area (segment) or functional system (exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee, breathing exercises for chronic pneumonia, etc.).

When applying exercise therapy is necessary to observe the following training rules: individualization (taking into account age, sex of patient, nature of disease); systemic, (selection of exercises and sequence of their application); regularity (daily or several times a day the use of exercise over a long period of time); duration (the repetition of exercises during the procedure and during a course of treatment); the gradual increase of physical load in the course of treatment (training must be complicated).

It is available for the original version
of the article in Russian


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